Types of doctoral theses at the HSG While most Ph.D. students opt for a classic monograph, you also have the option to write a cumulative thesis. The thesis must be an independent research project in which you demonstrate in-depth expertise and a grasp of scientific methods. You can submit the thesis in the form of a self-contained book (monograph) or collection of several essays (cumulative thesis). A cumulative thesis consists of at least three essays which comply with a standard of quality customary in renowned international journals, and they can already have been published. At least one essay must have been contributed by the Ph.D. student him or herself and must comprise a substantial part of the thesis as a whole. The essay can be written in cooperation with other authors (co-authorship). In terms of its contribution to science, a cumulative thesis in its entirety shall satisfy the same academic requirements as a thesis in the form of a monograph. Depending on the Ph.D. programme, there are different specifications for the cumulative thesis. Any submission of constituent parts that had been published before the student took up his/her doctoral studies shall not be admissible.